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Types of Doctors, and What They Do

Types of Doctors, and What They Do

The medical industry never stands still: new technology and disciplines are constantly arising. Nowadays, there are many types of doctors, each of which is responsible for a certain area of our health. And it’s not hard to get confused by such a variety of specialists.

5-Minute Crafts would like to tell you about the different types of doctors and what they do.
! This article is for informational purposes only.

Family doctors

Family doctors work with patients of any gender and age. They help diagnose and treat acute and chronic diseases. These doctors conduct regular examinations of their patients and also give referrals for other specialists.


physician provides medical care only to adults. You can get an appointment with this doctor only if you’ve turned 18, as younger patients are monitored by a pediatrician.

A physician deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of varying severity. They conduct a patient’s initial examination, prescribe tests, and refer them to other doctors, if necessary. Physicians often work in hospitals.


pediatrician takes care of children’s health exclusively, from the first days of their life until they reach 18 years of age. This doctor provides primary health care to minors and conducts general check-ups. Pediatricians treat coughs, colds, and the flu.

If a little patient has a serious illness, the doctor can refer them to a medical specialist.

Emergency physician

Emergency physicians provide emergency medical care to people. Fast response is essential in their work. These specialists should promptly conduct emergency diagnostics, make a diagnosis, and stabilize the patient’s condition.

Emergency physicians work with people of different genders and ages.


gynecologist is a medical doctor who deals with women’s health issues. They diagnose and treat diseases of the female genital organs and also specialize in diseases of the reproductive system, menopause, and hormonal problems.

An obstetrician assists with childbirth. Often, doctors combine these 2 specialties. In this case, the doctor is called an obstetrician/gynecologist. An obstetrician/gynecologist specializes in care for women in all stages of pregnancy, monitors the course of childbirth, and, if necessary, performs cesarean deliveries.


An allergist, or immunologist, is a doctor who specializes in the treatment of various types of allergies and other problems with the immune system.


An anesthesiologist specializes in anesthesia, that is, pain relief. Many believe that these doctors work only in operating rooms since they sedate patients. However, this is not so. Anesthesiologists help reduce pain for people with a variety of severe chronic diseases.

An anesthesiologist performs different types of pain relief, including the following.

  • General anesthesia, which puts you “to sleep” during surgery.
  • Local anesthesia, which numbs the small area that the surgery will be conducted on.
  • Regional anesthesia numbs the area of your body where you’ll have surgery.
  • Sedation helps patients to relax. The effects can range from mild drowsiness to full sleep.


An andrologist specializes in men’s health, including reproductive health. The women’s doctor is known as a gynecologist and the men’s doctor is referred to as an andrologist.


gastroenterologist specializes in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder, liver, bile ducts, and pancreas. They diagnose and treat diseases of these organs.


A hematologist specializes in diseases related to the blood, bone marrow, and lymphatic system. This doctor doesn’t just diagnose illnesses. They also do treatments, such as transfusing blood.


hepatologist diagnoses and treats various diseases of the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, and pancreas.


geriatrician specializes in providing medical care to older adults.


dermatologist specializes in skin conditions. This doctor diagnoses and treats various skin diseases. They can also perform minor surgery, such as removing a mole.

dermatopathologist is a doctor who diagnoses skin diseases at the microscopic level. They examine tissue samples and skin scrapings using an electron microscope.

Infectious disease doctor

An infectious disease doctor specializes in a variety of infectious diseases. This doctor studies clinical and laboratory diagnostic methods in order to be able to quickly make the correct diagnosis and choose the optimal treatment plan.


cardiologist specializes in heart and blood vessel diseases. People with heart failure, cardiovascular diseases, as well as patients who have undergone heart surgery seek help from this doctor.

cardiologist conducts a physical examination and prescribes tests. This doctor can prescribe medications and recommend certain physical exercises and lifestyle changes.


neurologist is engaged in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the nervous system, as well as the brain. This doctor treats a variety of conditions, from headaches to Alzheimer’s.


neonatologist specializes in the care of newborn children. This doctor is involved in childbirth and consults parents after the baby is born.


nephrologist specializes in kidney disease. This doctor diagnoses, treats, and manages acute and chronic kidney problems and diseases.


An oncologist specializes in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. They order tests, make a diagnosis, and control the course of treatment.

Oncologists treat various types of cancer. Almost all oncologists further specialize once they complete their oncology training.


An otolaryngologist specializes in problems of the head and neck.

Previously, these doctors specialized exclusively in the diseases of the ear, throat, and nose, but over the past 50 years the discipline has expanded, and now otolaryngologists work with pathologies of the structures of the head and neck, with the exception of the eyes and brain. In their work, these doctors often use special instruments, like endoscopes, otoscopes, etc.


An ophthalmologist specializes in eye and vision care. They diagnose and treat eye diseases, select glasses and lenses, and perform appropriate surgeries.


parasitologist specializes in various parasites that live on or inside the human body temporarily or permanently.


periodontist specializes in oral care and diagnoses and treats gum disease.


proctologist specializes in diseases of the lower digestive tract. This doctor diagnoses and treats diseases of the colon and rectum.


pulmonologist specializes in respiratory diseases. This doctor diagnoses and treats diseases of the lungs, bronchi, and other organs of the respiratory system.


psychiatrist specializes in the mental health field. They focus on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of mental, behavioral, and emotional disorders. Unlike a psychologist, this doctor can prescribe medications for their patients and perform certain procedures.


radiologist specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases and injuries using medical imaging techniques, like X-rays, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear medicine, positron emission tomography (PET), ultrasound, etc.

Rehabilitation therapist

A rehabilitation therapist helps people restore health through exercise. This doctor is advised for patients with arthritis, those who have undergone surgery or a stroke, as well as victims of accidents.


rheumatologist specializes in diseases of the musculoskeletal system and systemic autoimmune diseases, such as arthritis. This doctor studies conditions that affect the connective tissues.

Sleep doctor

A sleep doctor or somnologist deals with the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders, such as obstructive sleep apnea. This doctor also treats insomnia, restless legs syndrome, circadian rhythm disorders, etc.


urologist specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases that affect the male and female urinary tract. This doctor also treats prostate cancer and other conditions.


surgeon deals with the treatment of diseases requiring surgery. They plan and perform operations and also monitor patients afterward to make sure everything goes well.

Surgeons can be of different specialties. There are many types of surgeons, but these are just a few:

  • Cardiac surgeons
  • Orthopedic surgeons
  • Plastic surgeons
  • Emergency surgeons


An endocrinologist specializes in treating disorders of the endocrine system, problems with the body’s hormones, hormonal glands, and other related issues.

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