How Plant Cells Work
The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life. Most cells are so small that you can only see them through a microscope. But these are the things that make up the tissues and bones along with animals and plants.
Together with 5-Minute Crafts, you can brush up on the past biology lessons you were taught in school.
History of discovery
- Robert Hooke in 1665 first discovered a plant cell under a simple microscope.
- In 1831-1833, Robert Brown first described the nucleus as a small spherical body normally present in every plant cell.
- In 1864, Mohl gave the name “protoplasm” to designate the thin mucilaginous layer present inside the cell wall.
- In 1880, scientists Shimper and Meyer discovered plastids.
- In later years, thanks to electronic microscopes and better research methods, other structural elements of the cell were found.
Plant cell structure
It is the semipermeable membrane, also called the plasma membrane, that is present within the cell wall. It is composed of a bilayer of fat, having intermediate proteins incorporated as protein channels.
It is a specialized complex organelle whose primary function is to store the cell’s genetic information. The nucleus is enclosed by a double-membrane nuclear envelope. Usually, the nucleus is in the center of the cell and takes up to 10% of the size of the cell.
Mitochondria are among the largest cell organelles, also known as the engine house or the energy house of the cells.
- They synthesize proteins required for all cellular activities, including growth and reproduction.
- It helps in the formation of the nuclear membrane during cell division.
- It helps with the packaging and transporting of proteins and carbohydrates to other organelles.
- It aids in the production of proteins, lipids, glycogen, and other steroids, like cholesterol for its membrane and other parts of the cell.
A stack of 5 to 8 membrane-covered sacs called cisternae.
Organoids only found in plant cells
Plant and animal cells are very similar in many ways. Most organoids in them are the same. But in plant cells, there are some additional structures that perform some vital functions for plants.
It is the outermost, protective layer of a plant cell, having a thickness of 20 nm to 80 nm.
- They convert light energy into chemical energy to produce food in the form of carbohydrates by a process called photosynthesis.
- They help to store starch.
- They aid in photosynthesis.
- They help make plants and their parts green.
- They protect the plant from infections.
- They give a certain color to different parts of the plants: the flowers, the roots, and the leaves.
- They attract pollinators.
- They cahnge the shade of the flowers and the leaves.
- They help store different elements in the roots.
These are found in the non-green cells’ tissues of plants.
It is the large vesicle that makes up almost 30% to 80% of the total plant cell volume. The central vacuole is often the largest organelle in the cell that is filled with fluid, ions, enzymes, and other molecules.